Jatropha Curcas Advanced Trees for sale here online Australia.Watch Videos

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Jatropha Curcas Advanced Trees for sale here online Australia.Watch Videos

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The following report & article is from American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. What I am offering for sale here are trees that have matured to a height of around 3 metres in growbags. In the meantime small Jatropha Curcas cheaper trees are being prepared for sale in the near future & will be posted in this site when they are ready for sale.

Cuttings can be purchased @ $5 each in lots of 20.

Please be aware that shipping is an extra charge, so ASK HERE

Description

The following report & article is from American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. What I am offering for sale here are trees that have matured to a height of around 3 metres in growbags. In the meantime small Jatropha Curcas cheaper trees are being prepared for sale in the near future & will be posted in this site when they are ready for sale.

Cuttings can be purchased @ $5 each in lots of 20.

Please be aware that shipping is an extra charge, so ASK HERE

Chemical Composition, Bio-Diesel Potential and Uses of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)

Temesgen Bedassa Gudeta

Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia

To cite this article:

Temesgen Bedassa Gudeta. Chemical Composition, Bio-Diesel Potential and Uses of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae). American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 35-48. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20160402.15

Received: April 5, 2016; Accepted: April 18, 2016; Published: May 6, 2016


Abstract: This review paper focuses some basic aspect of the taxonomic, biology, cultivation, chemical composition, bio-diesel potential, medicinal values and uses of Jatropha curcas Linn.

The genus Jatropha is distributed throughout the tropics and sub-tropics growning in marginal lands and is a potential biodiesel crop worldwide. Due to its adaptability to marginal soils and environments the cultivation of Jatropha curcas is frequently mentioned as the best option for producing biodiesel. The seed oil can be used as a feed stock for biodiesel. Alternatively Jatropha oil is used in soap, glue or dye industry.

The seed cake is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used as manure. Ash from the roots and branches of Jatropha curcas L. is used as cooking salt, and as lye in dyeing. The dark blue dye extracted from the bark of Jatropha is a useful dye.

The plant parts and its oil along with its latex used for different reasons such as pesticides, anti-inflammatory activities, wound healing, lighting (lamp), bio-gas production, fertilizer and other purposes. The objective of this review paper focuses some basic aspect of the taxonomic, biology, cultivation, chemical composition, bio-diesel potential, medicinal values and uses of Jatropha curcas Linn.

Introduction

Jatropha curcas Linn is commonly known as ‘physic nut’ is a non-food bioenergy plant and currently considered as alternative substitute to fossil [1]. It is perennial shrub belongs to Euphorbiaceae family same as rubber and cassava trees [2,3]. Originally, Jatropha curcas was native tree in South America and was induced to Thailand about 200 years ago by Portuguese who produced soap from Jatropha oil. Generally, Jatropha tree is 3-6 meter tall, smooth grey bark, having latex and heart green leaf. Jatropha curcas L. or physic nut is a drought resistant large shrub or small tree, producing inedible oil containing seeds [4].

It is the commonest specie found in Nigeria, but many species exist in different parts of the world. It is a multipurpose, drought resistant tree and can be cultivated in areas of low rainfall [5]. Jatropha curcas L. is a suitable plant for quick and efficient domestication compared with other woody species [18]. Names used to describe the plant vary per region or country. It is most commonly known as “Physic nut‟. In Zimbabwe it is known as “Mufeta/ mujirimono” to mean it ‘oil tree’ [5]. In Nigeria it is known as “binidazugu/cinidazugu” and “lapa lapa” in Hausa and Yoruba languages respectively [6,7].

At present, the varieties being used to established plantations in Africa and Asia are inedible [8]. Due to its toxicity, J. curcas oil is not edible and is traditionally used for manufacturing soap and medicinal [4]. Although there have been few and increasing research investigations in the previous works about J. curcas L., they have been based on little evidence-based information concerning chemical composition, bio-diesel potential and uses of the plant all the required information at one place in detail and consolidated form.

There are many knowledge gaps concerning the chemical composition and potential applications of this plant. So, in view of such concerns of this plant, this review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the chemical composition, bio-diesel potential and uses of different parts from J. curcas L.,which could be significant in providing insights for present and future research aimed at both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use, as well as its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products along with its bio-diesel potentiality.

Taxonomic and Botanical Description

The Euphorbiaceae family, which is considered one of the largest families of Angiosperms, covers about 7,800 species distributed in approximately 300 genera and 5 subfamilies worldwide [9]. These species occur preferentially in tropical and subtropical environments [10,11].

Among the main genera belonging to this family, there is Jatropha L., which belongs to the subfamily Crotonoideae, Jatropheae tribe and is represented by about 200 species.

This genus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and the Americas [10]. The name “Jatropha” is derived from the Greek words “jatros,” which means “doctor” and “trophe,” meaning “food,” which is associated with its medicinal uses.

The leaves have significant variability in their morphology from green to pale green, alternate to sub opposite, and three- to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis [1]. Flowers of Jatropha curcas produce nectar and are scented. The nectaries are hidden in the corolla and only accessible to insects with a long proboscis or tongue. The sweet, heavy perfume at night and greenish yellow colour of the flowers suggest that they are pollinated by moths.

In inflorescences, the female flowers open one or two days before the male ones or at the same time as the earliest male flowers. Male flowers last only one day. Seed never sets in indoor cultivation unless the flowers are pollinated by hand.

Plants raised from seed are more resistant to drought than those raised from cuttings, because they develop a taproot. Fruit development from flowering to seed maturity takes 80–100 days. Plants from cuttings produce seeds earlier than plants grown from seed. Full production is achieved in the 4th or 5th year [12].

Male and female flowers are produced on the same inflorescence, averaging 20 male flowers to each female [15]. The petiole length ranges from 6.1–23.1 mm. The inflorescence can be formed in the leaf axil. Plants are monoecious and also possess hermaphroditic flowers occasionally. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually slightly larger occurring in hot seasons. Where continuous growth, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers.

More female flowers mean more fruits. Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits.

A three bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries [1]. The seeds are mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow.

The whole genome of J. curcas L was sequenced by Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba Japan in October 2010 [16]. It was reported, somatic chromosome numbers were counted from root-tip cells of four individuals per population and all had 2n=22 chromosomes, corresponding to the diploid level (x=11) in which all the plant populations were found diploid [17]. This lack of variation in chromosome numbers contrasts with the high variability in other characteristics such as seed size, weight, and oil contents due to environment and genetic interaction [18].

Ecological Requirements

Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months (dry season) form mulch around the base of the plant [20]. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the fertility of the soil. Regarding climate, Jatropha curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes.

1.3. Pests and Diseases

The seed oil, extracts of J. curcas seeds and phorbol esters from the oil have been used to control various pests, often with successful results. In Gabon, the seeds, ground and mixed with palm oil, are used to kill rats. The oil has purgative properties, but seeds are poisonous; even the remains from pressed seeds can be fatal [21]. It is popularly reported that pests and diseases do not pose a significant threat to jatropha, due to the insecticidal and toxic characteristics of all parts of the plant. However, incidence of pests and diseases such as collar rot, leaf spots, root rot and damping-off, may be controlled with a combination of cultural techniques (for example, avoiding waterlogged conditions) and fungicides are widely reported [2]. In Nicaragua (Pachycoris klugii) and India (Scutellera nobilis), causes flower fall, fruit abortion and seed malformation. Other serious pests include the larvae of the moth Pempelia morosalis which damages the flowers and young fruits, the bark-eating borer Indarbela quadrinotata, the blister miner Stomphastis thraustica, the semi-looper Achaea janata, and the flower beetle Oxycetonia versicolor [20]. Termites may damage young plants. Carefully and judiciously adding an insecticide to the planting pit may be advisable if problems are endemic the use of pesticides is not necessary, due to the pesticidal and fungicidal properties of the plant. An insecticide may be included as a precaution against termites [22].

1.4. Cultivation

J. curcas L. can be planted by two common methods; seed or seedling propagation and the cutting method [23]. It was reported that vegetative propagation can be achieved by stem cuttings, grafting, budding and by air layering techniques [24]. The investigation leads to the recommendation that cuttings should be taken preferably from juvenile plants and treated with 200 microgram per liter of indol butric acid IBA (rooting hormone) to ensure the highest level of rooting in stem cuttings. These vegetative methods have potential for commercial propagation of these plants and yields faster results than multiplication by seeds [20]. The plant can grow in wastelands and grows on almost any terrain, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils [25,57]. Mycorrhizae have been observed on the roots; they promote growth, especiallly where phosphate is limiting [12]. Complete seed germination is achieved within nine days. Adding manure during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favorable if applied after germination is achieved [26].

Jatropha curcas thrives on a mere 250 mm of rain a year, and only during its first two years does it need to be watered in the closing days of the dry season. Ploughing and planting are not needed regularly, as this shrub has a life expectancy of approximately forty years. Jatropha is planted at densities ranging from 1 1010 to 2500 plants per hectare. Yield per tree is likely to increase with wider spacing but with a decline in yields per hectare [18]. Spacing decisions should be based on the environment, i.e. how it affects competition among trees for water, light and nutrients. Semi-arid, low-input systems should use wider spacing such as 3.0 x 2.0, 3.0 x 2.5 or 3.0 x 3.0 metres. Alternate planting in succeeding rows will minimize mutual shading. In addition, consideration should be given to access. At least 2.5 m between trees allows easier passage for fruit pickers, while a 5-metre alley at every fourth row facilitates access by carts. Planting holes of 30–45 cm wide and deep should be prepared and organic matter incorporated before planting [20]. In the case of vegetative propagation of J. curcas, the method uses 40-50 cm long cuttings. Unlike seedlings, cuttings are planted during the dry season mostly two to three months prior to the commencement of rainy season. This is mainly because the plant has so much water that it can decompose if planted during the rainy season [5]. This contains resonance with thin which the jatropha cuttings have a thin layer of wax that prevents the easy evaporation of water hence they have to be planted early to lose some water [12].

1.5. Growth and Development

Growth in J. curcas is intermittent and sympodial which is a zigzag pattern of growth. Dormancy is induced by fluctuations in rainfall, temperature and light. Not all plants respond simultaneously; in a hedge plants without leaves may be found besides ones full of green leaves. The potential lifespan of J. curcas is 30–50 years [12].

Medicinal Properties of Jatropha Plant

Jatropha species are used in traditional medicine to cure various ailments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America or as ornamental plants and energy crops [3]. Several known species from genus Jatropha have been reported for their medicinal uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities such as Jatropha curcas, Jatropha elliptica, Jatropha gossypiifolia, and Jatropha mollissima, among others [58]. Although the leaves are toxic when consumed, the green pigment that comes out of the leaves and the latex that comes from the stem can be used to stop bleeding wounds on both humans and livestock. Apart from being used as a live fence, the plant is used as a repellant agent. Some people believe that jatropha protects the home from evil spirits and snakes. In Mutoko, Zimbabwe, witchcraft is a common social phenomenon hence jatropha is believed to have the power to repel witches and bad omens

The latex of Jatropha contains jatrophine, an alkaloid which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an external applicant for skin diseases, rheumatism, livestock sores, piles and as an antidote for certain snake-bites The dark blue dye extracted from the bark of Jatropha is a useful dye. Jatropha oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as organic manure. Jatropha leaves are used as food for the tusser silkworm. The seeds are considered anti helmintic in Brazil, and the leaves are used for fumigating houses against bed bugs. In addition, the ether extract shows antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [13]. Medically it is used for diseases like cancer, piles, snakebite, paralysis, dropsy etc [1]. Protein, constituting 18.2% of the mass of Jatropha curcas seed, is mainly made up of curcin; curcin toxicity is similar with that of ricin in Ricinuscommunis seeds and crotin in Croton tiglium seeds [59]. Curcin is also named Jatropha curcas ribosome inactivating protein (RIP), is a RNA n-glycosidase that can cause inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes and inhibition of protein syntheses [60]. It can effectively inhibit the in vitro proliferation of human gastric cancer cells (SGC-7901), murine myeloma cells (Sp20), and human hepatoma cells [61]. The full-length cDNA sequence (GenBank Accession Number AY069946) and gene sequence (GenBank Accession Number AF469003) of curcin have been cloned in Escherichia coli cells and expressed into bioactive mature proteins with conserved protein domains [62]. Other researcher screened for two kinds of protein from Jatropha curas seeds. One of them is a 28kD anticancer protein, which suppresses the activity of ribosome and is thereby curcin [20,63].

The roots, bark, leaves and seeds of J. curcas are used for medicinal purposes.

J. curcas seeds are characterized by its anti inflammatory, and anti-swelling effects. J. curcas seed oil can be used as a laxative, and is also widely used for treating various skin diseases, and for pain relief, including rheumatic diseases. Overdose of J. curcas seed oil could lead to diarrhea and gastroenteritis. J. curcas seeds have been found to exhibit significant anti-cancer activity. The seeds also possess value for use as an industrial oil, prevention of pests and plant diseases; it is also shows promising pharmaceutical value. J. curcas is also an excellent species for domestication in hot and barren mountainous lands at river valley areas. With advances in basic research and further industrialization of J. curcas domestication, it is expected that J. curcas will hold an exceptional economical value to China [6063].

The latex has a widespread reputation for healing wounds, as a haemostatic and for curing skin problems; it is applied externally to treat infected wounds, ulcers, ringworm, eczema, dermatomycosis, scabies and sarcoptic mange in sheep and goats. The latex is discharged from the bark when the plant is cut and it is white and watery. The latex of Jatropha contains jatrophine, an alkaloid which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an external applicant for skin diseases, rheumatism, livestock sores, piles and as an antidote for certain snake-bites Upon drying, the initially viscous latex forms an airtight film, resembling that produced by collodion. The latex has a styptic effect and is used against pains and stings of bees and wasps. Dried and pulverized root bark is made into poultices and is taken internally to expel worms and to treat jaundice [1,5,20]. Leaves are also applied on wounds and in decoction they are used against malaria in Mali and Madagascar, while in Benin and Réunion a decoction is taken against hypertension. The leaf sap is used externally to treat haemorrhoids in Benin and Madagascar. In Guinea Bissau a hot water extract of the leaves is taken orally to accelerate secretion of milk in women after childbirth. Fresh stems are used as chew sticks to strengthen the gums, and to cure bleeding, spongy gums or gum boils. A decoction of the roots is a cure for diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. In Madagascar a decoction of the leaves and roots is taken to treat malaria. Jatropha curcas is also used in the preparation of arrow poison and in the Philippines the bark is used to prepare a fish poison. The seeds are often a source of accidental poisoning, both in animals and humans [1,21].

Leaf sap yields a black dye or ink that is said to be indelible; the bark yields a dark blue dye, which, however, is not fast. Jatropha curcas is widely cultivated in the tropics as a living fence, for erosion control, demarcation of boundaries and for protection of homesteads, gardens and fields against browsing animals. In Madagascar and elsewhere in Africa it serves as a support for vanilla, black pepper and yams. The seed cake left after oil extraction is too toxic to be used as animal feed, but constitutes a valuable organic fertilizer rich in nitrogen. Some accessions of Jatropha curcas found e.g. in Mexico are almost free of toxins and the seed cake from such selections would provide a nutritious feedstock on account of the high protein content. Their seeds are sometimes boiled or roasted and eaten as a snack and young leaves as a vegetable. Jatropha oil has molluscicidal properties against the vector snails of the Schistosoma parasite that causes bilharzia. The emulsified oil has been found to be an effective insecticide against weevil pests and house flies, and an oil extract has been found to control cotton bollworm and sorghum stem borers [13,31].

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